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    螺紋電鍍前尺寸精度的控制
    瀏覽: 發布日期:2018-05-08

    許多桿端關節軸承產品都帶有螺紋結構,其表面大都采用電鍍層來進行防腐和裝飾,如何保證電鍍后螺紋尺寸合格是生產過程中的難題。在長期的生產實踐過程中,在螺紋電鍍尺寸控制方面掌握了一些經驗,在此加以歸納和總結。

      1電鍍層對螺紋幾何參數的影響假設鍍層厚度在螺紋上是均勻分布的,則鍍層對螺紋中徑尺寸產生的影響如所示(外螺紋,以常用牙形角60為例),其中:T為電鍍前螺紋中徑;d1為電鍍后螺紋中徑;為電鍍層厚度;Ad為電鍍后螺紋中徑單邊量。

      則電鍍后螺紋中徑總的量為:d1―d也就是說螺紋中徑的大量是鍍層厚度的4倍。

      同樣道理,內螺紋電鍍后,其中徑減少量也是鍍層厚度的4倍。

      中由于零件的突出部位容易發生電力線過度集中,即產生所謂的2所示。因此在制定電尖端效應示意圖鍍工藝時必須加以考慮。

      2螺紋電鍍前尺寸的控制為了使螺紋零件電鍍后的尺寸合格,可以通過以下途徑。

      在耐腐蝕性能允許的條件下適當地減小鍍層厚度,可以減少鍍層厚度對配合尺寸的影響。

      在零件性能允許的條件下,采用酸洗和化學拋光等工藝,事先對零件進行處理,預留零件需要電鍍的厚度,以保證電鍍后零件尺寸在圖樣要求范圍內。

      在零件機械加工過程中預留足夠的鍍層厚度尺寸。

      選用耐腐蝕性更好的基體材料以減薄鍍層厚度,或選用高耐蝕性鍍層(在較低鍍層厚度的情況下可達到同樣的防護性能)來保證零件尺寸精度。

      在實際生產過程中有2種較為常用的方法使零件表面預留出接近于鍍層的尺寸余量,即化學尺寸拋光和機械加工過程中預留足夠的鍍層厚度尺寸,以下加以詳細說明。

      2.1化學尺寸拋光化學尺寸拋光就是使金屬制品在特定的溶液中通過有規則的溶解以達到規定尺寸的一種加工方法。在化學拋光過程中,螺紋齒尖部位的溶解速度大于螺紋斜面和齒根部位的溶解速度,與電鍍后齒尖部位鍍層分布較厚相補償,有利于修正電鍍后齒尖幾何形狀。化學拋光能使粗糙的表面得到整平,有利于提高鍍層的平滑度、降低孔隙率、提高耐蝕性11;化學拋光還可以起到除銹作用。化學尺寸拋光操作比較簡單,生產效率高,可以和電鍍作業連為一體,只需在原有設備中加一個化學拋光槽和清洗槽即可。

      建議使用下列配方的拋光液111:%(體積分數)/min,生產中可根據零件需鍍覆的厚度來計算溶解時間,并通過生產試驗加以驗證總結,可以有效控制螺紋的電鍍質量。

      2.2機械加工過程中預留足夠的鍍層厚度尺寸解決有配合要求的零件鍍后尺寸配合問題必須與產品設計和工藝部門一道協商零件鍍前工藝尺寸,事先預留鍍層厚度及其鍍覆尺寸偏差。應特別注意的是,在預留厚度的同時還應考慮因零件形狀不同而引起的鍍層厚度不均勻性的問題。

      因鍍層厚度和均勻性控制不好引起公差配合問題的部件,其中最普遍的是螺紋零件和緊固件等。當螺紋零件進行電鍍時,如前所述,其螺紋的牙尖和谷底的鍍層厚度是不一樣的。因此螺紋經電鍍后出現配合障礙主要原因是鍍層厚度不均造成的牙型角變形,其次才是鍍層厚度厚的問題。

      在實際生產過程中往往是將以上2種方法結合起來,必須掌握一套有效的操作規程,以保證螺紋的電鍍質量。

      3鍍層厚度規定普通螺紋可容納的鍍層厚度取決于螺距和螺紋公差帶的位置。

      ―85螺紋緊固件電鍍層21表格中選取。

      電鍍層的最小厚度:電鍍層必須達到一定厚度才有應用價值,具體可根據國家的鹽霧試驗標準GB/T10125人造氣氛腐蝕試驗鹽霧試驗來加以衡量,一般控制在3具體確定。

      4實際精度控制對于內螺紋來說,一般常用的等級精度為H級,通常情況下,電鍍時由于內螺紋的屏蔽作用,螺紋部分的鍍層厚度相比較薄,如果在內螺紋的實際輪廓不是最大實體牙型的情況下,H級公差可以容納一部分鍍層厚度,也就是說鍍后內螺紋的實際輪廓不超過H級公差的最大實體牙型就不會影響其旋合性。所以H級公差可以滿足一般行業的要求,也就是說標準緊固件表面需要電鍍時,鍍前用H級塞規,鍍后還用H級塞規檢查。

      對于有特殊要求的內螺紋緊固件,由于受到加工方法和檢測方法的限制,一般采用高一等級的塞規來檢測和控制螺紋電鍍前的尺寸精度,同時控制鍍層厚度,避免因鍍層過厚而影響到尺寸精度。

      外螺紋成形的方法較多,如搓絲、滾絲、鉸絲和車削等,螺紋尺寸和加工公差比較容易控制,考慮到電鍍層對螺紋幾何參數的影響,電鍍前尺寸控制準則如下:最小中徑=d2min―4X最小鍍層厚度最大大徑=dmax-2X最大鍍層厚度最小大徑=dmin―2X最小鍍層厚度螺紋小徑=d1―2X最大鍍層厚度徑。

      mm,則其鍍前尺寸計算如下:015=8.824在實際生產過程中,為了使問題簡化,便于生產和檢驗控制,一般可采用只控制螺紋中徑的方法。

      5結語經過長期的生產實踐,合理地遵循電鍍前尺寸的控制方法和準則可較好地控制螺紋電鍍后的質量,特別是細牙螺紋和一些較難電鍍的螺紋都可以沈陽機床集團搬遷過程中達到泮火液及冷卻水零排放卯石剛S宿新天2,范雙喜2王偉2(1.沈陽機床股份有限公司,遼寧沈陽1100252保定金能換熱設備有限公司,河北保定071000)設備冷卻水進行封閉式循環冷卻,實現了熱處理淬火介質和冷卻水的零排放目標,同時保證了熱處理工件的質量,提高了生產效率,減少了居修量,取得了預期的節能減排效果。

      2006年沈陽機床整體搬遷重組,同時對原沈陽第一機床廠、沈陽數控機床廠、中捷搖臂鉆床廠熱處理車間進行重組,成立了熱處理事業部。在搬遷規劃中,提出的目標是本著節能、降耗、環保的原則對工藝布局、設備、電源及淬火介質和冷卻水系統實施全方位的新工藝。

      根據減排、降耗目標,新廠區首先選用保定市金能換熱設備公司生產的空氣冷卻器27臺,全面對熱處理設備冷卻、淬火介質封閉式循環冷卻,實現熱處理淬火液和冷卻水零排放的目標。主要改用空氣冷卻器冷卻的設備有床身淬火機(最大200kW)8臺、高頻淬火機(最大200kW)10臺、法國箱式多用爐(26kW)1臺、氣體滲碳爐(100kW)2臺、氣體氮化爐3臺、3t鹽水淬火槽1個、10t淬火水槽及淬火油槽各1臺、7m井式淬火水槽1臺。

      從2007年開始使用的空氣冷卻器,至今其性能保持良好,有效地保證了生產任務的順利完成。淬火油空氣冷卻器放在室外,淬火液(電源循環水)冷卻器放在室內,夏冬全天候使用,故障率較低,尤其是鹽水槽冷卻保證連續鹽爐淬火,淬火液水溫低于40 C,保證了連續生產和熱處理工件的質量,改用空氣冷卻器后帶來明顯的經濟效益和社會效益。

      空氣冷卻器現己在沈陽地區得到推廣應用,北方重工、沈鼓集團等大型國營企業在搬遷后都采用該設備,雙馬熱處理廠等民營熱處理企業也紛紛使用該空氣冷卻器,使用后均給與一致好評。

      1淬火介質與冷卻水工藝分析1.1原淬火介質冷卻狀況原使用情況為:所有設備的冷卻水,淬火水都是直接排放,鹽水淬火槽中淬火液溫度升高后,影響正常生產的進行,只能靠加自來水降溫,鹽水排放費用高(每月用5t鹽),浪費很大;油槽沒有冷卻設備,高溫油只能等自然降溫后才能使用,嚴重地制約了生產。

      得到有效質量控制。

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